Biofuels currently account for just over 15% of Sweden’s energy supply, and there is potential to increase this through the increased use of forest waste products and dedicated energy crops. Other sources of biomass and organic waste can also be used for biogas production. Biofuels can be used in the form of both untreated waste and pellets, for the production of electricity and heat, as well as for conversion to liquid and gaseous transport fuels.
Extensive research is being carried out at LTH and Lund University in bioenergy, especially the conversion of biofuels to ethanol and biogas. This research also includes economic, socio-economic and environmental factors besides engineering, and various biofuel systems are being studied from a life-cycle perspective. Analysis is also being carried out of the international biofuel market in a European perspective, as well as the strategies and policies that can be implemented to encourage the development of the bioenergy sector.
Biomass can be converted to biogas, which is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, under anaerobic conditions. All biomass can, in principle, be converted in this way. This means that household waste and manure can be used to produce biogas, at the same time providing biofertilizer.
The agricultural sector produces large amounts of excess biomass, which today is often directly ploughed back into the fields. Fermentation of this material and use of the resulting biofertilizer would thus be an interesting option for agriculture for two reasons: improved economy and reduction of the leakage of nitrogen into the environment.